Why Are Photos Stored in a DCIM Folder?

Every Digital Photo-Taking Device Uses the DCIM Folder—but Why?

Close-Up photo of a camera lens
Shannon Kropp/EyeEm/Getty Images

If you have a digital camera of any kind and have paid any attention to how it stores the photos you've taken, you may have noticed that they're kept in a DCIM folder.

What you may not have realized is that just about every digital camera, be it the pocket kind or the professional DSLR variety, uses that same folder.

Want to hear something even more surprising? While you probably use apps to view, edit, and share the photos you take with your smartphone or tablet, those photos are also stored in your phone's storage in a DCIM folder.

So what's so special about this ubiquitous acronym that every company seems to agree is so important that they must all use it for your photos? 

Why DCIM and Not 'Photos'?

DCIM stands for Digital Camera IMages, which probably helps this folder make a little more sense. Something like Photos or Images would be much more clear and easy to spot, but there is a reason for the DCIM choice.

The consistent naming of the photo storage location for digital cameras as DCIM is defined as part of the DCF (Design Rule for Camera File System) specifications, which has been adopted by so many camera makers that it's practically an industry standard.

Because the DCF spec is so commonplace, developers of the photo management software you have on your computer and photo editing and sharing apps you downloaded to your phone, are all comfortable programming their tools to focus photo-searching efforts on the DCIM folder.

This consistency encourages other camera and smartphone makers, and in turn, even more, software and app developers, to stick to this DCIM-only storage habit.

The DCF specification does more than just dictate the folder that photos are written to. It also says that those SD cards must use a specific file system when formatted (one of the many FAT file system versions) and that subdirectories and file names used for the saved photos follow a specific pattern.

All of these rules make working with your photos on other devices and with other software, much easier than if each manufacturer came up with its own rules.

When Your DCIM Folder Becomes a DCIM File

Considering the uniqueness and value that every personal photo we take has, or has the potential to have, a particularly painful experience occurs when your photos disappear due to a technical glitch of some kind.

One issue that can occur early in the process of enjoying those photos you took is a corruption of the files on the storage device—the SD card, for example. This might happen when the card is still in the camera, or it could occur when it's inserted into another device such as your computer or printer.

There are lots of different reasons why corruption like this occurs, but the outcome usually looks like one of these three situations:

  1. One or two images can't be viewed
  2. There are no photos on the card at all
  3. The DCIM folder isn't a folder but is now a single, large, file

In the case of Situation  #1, there's often nothing you can do. Take the photos that you can view off the card, and then replace the card. If it happens again, you probably have a problem with the camera or photo-taking device you're using.

Situation #2 could mean that the camera never recorded the pictures, in which case, replacing the device is wise, or it could mean that the file system is corrupted.

Situation #3 almost always means that the file system is corrupted. As similar as #2 and #3 are, at least if the DCIM folder is existing as a file, you can feel reasonably comfortable that the images are there, they're just not in a form that you can access right now.

In either #2 or #3, you'll need to seek the help of a dedicated file system repair tool such as Magic FAT Recovery. If a file system issue is the source of the problem, this program may help.

If you're fortunate enough to have Magic FAT Recovery work out, be sure to reformat the SD card after backing up your photos. You can do that either with your camera's built-in formatting tools or in Windows or macOS.

If you format the card yourself, format it using FAT32 or exFAT if the card is over 2 GB. Any FAT system will do if it's smaller than 2 GB.