Worldwide Analog Video Standards


 Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

In the current state of analog television, the world is divided into three standards that are basically incompatible: NTSC, PAL, and SECAM.

Why three standards or systems? Basically, television was "invented" at different times in various parts of the world (U.S., U.K., and France). Politics pretty much dictated at the time which system would be employed as the national standard in these countries.


NTSC is the U.S. standard that was adopted in 1941 as the first standardized television broadcasting and video format that is still in use. NTSC stands for National Television Standards Committee and was approved by the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) as the standard for television broadcasting in the U.S.

NTSC is based on a 525-line, 60 fields/30 frames-per-second at 60Hz system for transmission and display of video images. This is an interlaced system in which each frame is scanned in two fields of 262 lines, which is then combined to display a frame of video with 525 scan lines.

This system works fine, but one drawback is that color TV broadcasting and the display was not part of the equation when the system was first approved. A dilemma arose as to how to incorporate color with NTSC without making the millions of B/W televisions in use by the early 1950's obsolete.

A standardization for adding color to the NTSC system was adopted in 1953. However, the implementation of color into the NTSC format has been a weakness of the system, thus the term for NTSC became known by many professionals as "Never Twice The Same Color". Ever notice that color quality and consistency varies quite a bit between stations?

NTSC is the official analog video standard in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, some parts of Central and South America, Japan, Taiwan, and Korea.


PAL is the dominant format in the world for analog television broadcasting and video display (sorry U.S.) and is based on a 625 line, 50 field/25 frames a second, 50HZ system. The signal is interlaced, like NTSC into two fields, composed of 312 lines each. One distinguishing feature is a better overall picture than NTSC because of the increased amount of scan lines. Also, since the color was part of the standard from the beginning, color consistency between stations and TVs are much better. There is a downside to PAL since there are fewer frames (25) displayed per second, sometimes you can notice a slight flicker in the image, much like the flicker seen on projected film.

Since PAL and its variations have such world domination, it has been nicknamed "Peace At Last", by those in the video professions. Countries on the PAL system include the U.K., Germany, Spain, Portugal, Italy, China, India, most of Africa, and the Middle East. 


SECAM is the "outlaw" of analog video standards. Developed in France, SECAM, while superior to NTSC, is not necessarily superior to PAL. Like PAL, it is a 625 line, 50 field/25 frames per second interlaced system, but the color component is implemented differently than either PAL or NTSC. In fact, SECAM stands for (in English) Sequential Color With Memory. In the video profession, it has been dubbed "Something Contrary To American Methods", due to its different color management system. Countries on the SECAM system include France, Russia, Eastern Europe, and some parts of the Middle East.

One important thing to point out about SECAM is that it is a television broadcast transmission format, but it is not a DVD playback format. DVDs are mastered in either NTSC or PAL and coded for specific geographical regions, with regards to playback compatibility. In countries that use the SECAM broadcast standard, DVDs are mastered in the PAL video format.

In other words, people that live in countries that use the SECAM television broadcast format, also use the PAL format when it comes to DVD video playback. All consumer-based SECAM televisions can view both a SECAM broadcast signal or a PAL direct video signal from a source such as DVD player, VCR, DVR, etc.

Stripping off all the technical jargon regarding NTSC, PAL, and SECAM, the existence of these TV formats simply means that video in one place may not be the same as video in another. The main reason that each system is incompatible is that they are based on different frame rates and bandwidth, which prevents such things as videotapes and DVDs recorded in one system from being played in the other systems.

Multi-System Solutions

There are solutions to these conflicting technologies already in place in the consumer market. In Europe, for instance, many TVs and DVD players sold are both NTSC and PAL capable. In the U.S., this problem is addressed by retailers that specialize in international electronics products.

Worldwide Standards for Digital Television

You would think that the worldwide implementation of digital TV and HDTV would solve the issue of incompatible video systems, but that is not the case. There is a "world" of controversy surrounding the adoption of a universal standard for digital television broadcasting and playback video in high definition video systems.

The US and several North American and Asian countries have adopted the ATSC (Advanced Television Standards Committee standard, Europe has adopted the DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) standard, and Japan is opting for its own system, ISDB (Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting). Although there are obvious differences between HD and analog video, the frame rate difference still remains in PAL and NTSC countries.

In countries that have been on the NTSC analog television/video system, the HD broadcasting standards and recorded HD standards (such as Blu-ray and HD-DVD) still adhere to the NTSC frame rate of 30 frames per second, while the HD standards in countries that have been on the PAL broadcast/video standard or the SECAM broadcast standard adhere to the PAL frame rate of 25 frames per second.

A growing number of high definition televisions becoming available worldwide, as well as almost all video projectors, are able to display both 25 frames and 30 frames per second HD format signals.

Leaving out all the technical jargon regarding the various types of digital/HDTV broadcast standards, this means, in terms of broadcast, cable, and satellite television in the digital age, there will still be an incompatibility between the world's nations. With the implementation of video processing and conversion chips in more video products, the playing back recorded video will become less of an issue as time moves on.