How to Properly Cite Internet References in Your Research

Citing your web references = smart
Citing your web references = smart. JGI-Tom Grill / Getty

There are multiple North American guidelines for quoting (aka 'citing)' your online research in your essay, paper, or news article.  Here are the most common methodologies:

(Continued from the student guide: How to Research Online)

  1. Basic In-Text Citation Method: How You Copy-Paste into Your Paper
    Citation Basics
    According to the APA and the Purdue Owl, author-date is the proper style for citing a reference in the middle of other text. (e.g. Gil, 2008)
     
  1. APA Citing Guide for Social Sciences
    (American Psychological Association)
    Purdue University APA Reference
    (Neyhard, Karper, Seas, Russell, Wagner, and Angeli, 2009)
     
  2. Formatting Citations: Capitalization, Quotes, Underlining:
    APA Capitalization Styles
    Most titled words of four letters or more are capitalized, as are both words in a compound word (e.g. Environmentally-Friendly Pesticides and Controls)
  3. How to Make Long Quotations or Paraphrases:
    APA Quotation and Paraphrase Style
    Indenting is desirable for longer quotations. Page numbers are ideal for whenever you paraphrase an author.
     
  4. How to Cite an Author/Authors:
    APA Author Citation Style
    You will use "and" or the ampersand "&", depending on your use of parentheses. In cases where 6 authors or more are cited, the "et al" expression will come into play.
     
  5. Citing Electronic Documents:
    APA Source Style
    When there is no date on an Internet or electronic reference, use the "n.d." abbreviation. Where there are no page numbers available, you need to help the reader find the exact paragraph as well.