How to Convert Text to Upper, Lower, or Proper Case in Excel

Built-in functions facilitate text case conversions

Uppercase and lowercase Cyrillic letter Ye. Times New Roman font.
By F l a n k e r (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Excel includes several built-in, specialized functions that modify the case of letters within a text string:

  • LOWER(): Converts text to all lower case (small letters)
  • UPPER(): Converts text all to upper case (capital letters)
  • PROPER(): Converts text to title form by capitalizing the first letter of each word

The functions and their syntax work for all versions of Microsoft Excel.

UPPER, LOWER, and PROPER Functions' Syntax and Arguments

A function's syntax refers to the layout of the function and includes the function's name, brackets, comma separators, and arguments.

The syntax for the UPPER() function is:


The syntax for the LOWER() function is:


The syntax for the PROPER() function is:


Each of these functions accept a single argument:

  • A cell reference
  • A word or words enclosed in quotation marks
  • A formula that outputs text

Example Usage

If cell A1 contained the text Success, then the formula


returns SUCCESS.

Likewise, the following formula

=LOWER("My CaT iS aWeSoMe")

returns my cat is awesome.

If you need a refresher for manually entering formulas, check out our step-by-step guide to formulas. We've also prepared a tutorial about the uses and examples of Excel functions.

Use VBA for Changing Text Case

Using formulas for very large spreadsheets or frequently updated data is less efficient than using a Visual Basic for Applications macro. Although VBA is more of an advanced programming technique, Microsoft published a beginner-friendly introduction to VBA for Excel that can get you started.