What Are Unethical and Ethical Hackers?

What about hackers that walk that line and hacktivists?

A hacker is a tech-savvy computer user who manipulates and bypasses computer systems to make them do the unintended. Sometimes this manipulation is noble with a goal to create something beneficial. Other times, hacking is done to hurt people through identity theft or other damage.

Black had and White hat hackers in dark and lit rooms
Lifewire / Hilary Allison

Types of Hackers

You are likely familiar with the stereotypical 1980s hacker, the evil criminal who is socially isolated. While this stereotype does indeed describe some modern hackers, other hackers exist who are not criminals. There are many hackers who use their knowledge for good. The main categories of hackers are:

  • Unethical Hackers: Criminals and wrongdoers.
  • Ethical Hackers: Ethical hackers who work to protect systems and people.
  • Borderline Hackers: Dabble in both ethical and unethical tinkering.
01
of 05

Classic Unethical Hackers

Person in hoodie and mask on computer representing a hacker

Gu / Getty Images

An unethical hacker is a computer user who willfully vandalizes or commits theft on other people's networks.

These hackers have malicious motivations and are gifted but unethical computer users who are motivated by money, fame, or criminal purposes. They may steal data to sell it or attempt to extort money from system owners. They are the bad guys of the hacking world.

Unethical hackers are renowned for these common cybercrimes:

  • Distributed denial of service (DDOS) attacks that impair computer networks
  • Identity theft
  • The creation of worms and other destructive programs
02
of 05

Ethical Hackers

Men working on laptop in server room

 Erik Isakson / Getty Images

Different from the classic unethical hackers, ethical hackers are driven by honorable motivations or honorable agendas. These hackers are talented computer security users often employed to protect computer networks.

Ethical hackers usually have permission from the owner of any system they work on. These cybersecurity specialists are experts on closing vulnerabilities and dealing with attacks from unethical hackers.

Some ethical hackers are academic hackers. These are computer artisans who are less interested in protecting systems and more interested in creating clever programs and beautiful interfaces. Their motivation is to improve a system through alterations and additions. Academic hackers can be casual hobbyists, or they can be serious computer engineers working on their graduate-level degrees.

03
of 05

Borderline Hackers

Man in hooding using two separate computers

People Images / Getty Images

Borderline hackers are often hobbyists with intermediate technical skills. They enjoy disassembling and modifying their own computers for pleasure, and they sometimes dabble in minor business hacks such as file sharing and cracking software. They aren't usually motivated by personal gain.

Borderline hackers rarely escalate into becoming serious unethical hackers.

04
of 05

Script Kiddies and Hacktivists

Close up of hands with gloves on using computer keyboard

Towfiqu Photography / Getty Images

Sub categories of hackers include:

  • Script Kiddies are novice hackers who are unskilled. They rely on programs and files to hack and don't bother to learn how they work. They have little respect for the skills involved and aren't motivated to learn. Script kiddies can be ethical, unethical, or borderline hackers. 
  • Hacktivists are hackers who are also social activists fighting for a cause. Some people would argue that famous hackers such as Lulzsec and Anonymous are hacktivists fighting government corruption and corporate misdeeds. Hacktivists can be ethical, unethical, or borderline hackers. 
05
of 05

More About Computer Hackers

Man with backpack on using computer, hacking WiFi on the roof with laptop and antenna

francesco / Getty Images 

Computer hacking is exaggerated by the media, but every savvy web user should know about the unsavory people on the web. Understanding common hacker attacks and scams helps you navigate safely online.